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DOI:
国际比较文学:2018,(3):386-399
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中国古代题画诗文的社会功能及其发展的社会动因
(故宫博物院)
The Social Functions of Ancient Chinese Painting Inscriptions and the Social Factors in Their Development
(The Palace Museum, Beijing)
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投稿时间:2017-10-03    修订日期:2017-11-13
中文摘要: 中国古代题画诗文常被视为画作的"有机组成部分",它们与画面交相"融会"从而达到"诗情画意"的意境。本文则认为应对这些空泛模糊的话语保持审慎的态度。我们可跳出审美论之外,将题画诗文放回到原本的社会语境中,从社会功用的角度去理解其发展。本文从社会交际、地域竞争和身份建构三方面入手,来探讨题画诗文在中国古代所发挥的一部分社会功能,以及题画诗文获得发展的社会动因。这三方面实则相互关联:苏州地区文人频繁使用题画诗文进行社会交际,导致题画诗文成为"吴地"画坛的"招牌"。题画诗文助阵明中后期"吴派"对"浙派"的打压,也因此成为浙地攻击苏州的标靶。而在社会交际和地域竞争的背后是雅俗边界的变动。晚明至清代文人画学论述对题画诗文何以守住文人精英高雅"阵地"一事,表现出越来越强烈的身份焦虑。
中文关键词: 题画诗文;文人交际;浙派;地域竞争;身份建构
Abstract:Inscriptions written on ancient Chinese paintings are considered as painting's integral part that integrates the image into a poetic unity. This essay questions the validity of these vague discourses and proposes to understand painting inscriptions in a social context. This essay illuminates the following three factors in the development of painting inscriptions in history:social interactions, regional competition, and identity making. This essay argues that the Ming Suzhou elite intensively brought painting inscriptions into their social intercourses to such an extent that inscriptions became a distinctive mark of Suzhou paintings. This is why inscription was the target when Gushihuapu, a painting model book printed in late Ming Hangzhou, criticized Suzhou painters. Behind social interactions and regional competitions was a desire to distinguish elegance from vulgarity and associate the inscriber himself with the side of elegance.
keywords: painting inscriptions;social interactions of ancient Chinese literati;the Zhe school;regional competition;identity making
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王文欣 故宫博物院 
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WANG Wenxin The Palace Museum, Beijing 
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