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DOI:
国际比较文学:2020,3(1):69-89
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“海国新奇妇有髭”——晚清域外游记中有关妇人生须的“观察”与跨文化想象
(上海师范大学)
“It's Strange, Women Overseas Have Whiskers”: Observations of Women's Facial Hair in Late-Qing Foreign Travelogues and Cross-Cultural Imaginations
(Shanghai Normal University)
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投稿时间:2019-10-10    修订日期:2019-11-24
中文摘要: 在晚清域外游记中,有一种对西方女性的“观察”,即认为西方女性是“生须”的。这一记述之所以值得关注,是因为记述者都是“亲眼所见”,而且这种描述并非孤例,散见于许多文献之中,如张祖翼的《伦敦竹枝词》、王以宣的《法京纪事诗》、张德彝的《三述奇》、袁祖志的《瀛海采问纪实》等。西方文献中有关于女性生须的记录,多以神秘、畸形和猎奇的态度记述之。中国史籍中有关妇人生须的记载史不绝书,或用以描述蛮夷之貌,或用以暗示灾异之兆,或用以呈现报应之果,或用以彰显祥瑞之象。总之,中西文献中女性生须的记载都可归为本文化中“异质”因素。在晚清中西交通之后,出洋的中国人将对于本文化“异质”要素的理解转化为对于“异文化”的观察。有关西方妇人生须的“观察”,虽为记述者之“亲见”,但“观察”之结果是由观察者的文化立场所决定的,其中包含着大量想象的成分。何天爵在《本色中国人》中所记述的一则误解事件,则足以证明这种对异文化的“在场观察”,根本上也受到了跨文化“想象”的影响。文化观察的结果,并不因观察距离的拉进而改变,异文化的形象,实质上就是一种“社会集体想象物”。
中文关键词: 妇人生须;三述奇;镜花缘;形象学
Abstract:In travelogues of the late Qing Dynasty, there was an "observation" made about Western women; namely, that Western women were born with facial hair. The reason why this record is worth attention is that the narrator "saw it with his own eyes," and this description is not an isolated example, which can be found in many documents, such as Zhang Zuyi's "London Zhuzhi Ci," Wang Yixuan's "Fa Jing Ji Shi," Zhang Deyi's "San Shu Qi," Yuan Zuzhi's "Ying Hai Cai Wen Ji Shi," and others. There are records of female facial hair in Western literature, which are mostly described as mysterious, abnormal, and curious. In Chinese historical records, there are many records about women's facial hair, either to describe the appearance of barbarians, to indicate the omens of disasters, to show the results of retribution, or to show the image of auspiciousness. In short, the records of female facial hair in Chinese and Western literature can be classified as "heterogeneous" culturally. Although the observation of Western women's facial hair is the narrator's personal view, the result of observation is determined by the observer's cultural position, which contains many imaginative elements. A misunderstanding described by Chaster Holcombe in The Real Chinaman is enough to prove that this kind of "on-the-spot observation" of different cultures is also fundamentally influenced by cross-cultural "imagination." The result of cultural observation is not changed by the distance of observation. The image of different cultures is essentially a kind of "social collective imagination."
keywords: Women's facial hair;San Shu Qi;Jing Hua Yuan;Imagology
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基金项目:本文为国家社科基金后期资助项目“中国现代美学的学科制度与知识谱系”阶段性成果(项目编号:17FZW031)。
作者单位E-mail
王宏超 上海师范大学 wanghongchao@shnu.edu.cn 
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
WANG Hongchao Shanghai Normal University wanghongchao@shnu.edu.cn 
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