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国际比较文学英文版:2020,3(4):636-650
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阿基琉斯与苏格拉底教化
(中山大学)
Achilles and Socrates’ Teaching
(Sun Yat-sen University)
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Received:June 08, 2020    
中文摘要: 荷马史诗所塑造的英雄阿基琉斯,在古希腊伦理教化中一直是城邦青年的楷模。但在柏拉图《理想国》中,哲人苏格拉底尤其批判了荷马的阿基琉斯。阿基琉斯身上的始源人性和爱欲激情,对于苏格拉底培育“美丽城邦”的护卫者非常不利。批判阿基琉斯的“属己的爱”,倡导对“存在真理”的热爱,就成了苏格拉底哲学教化的使命。然而,苏格拉底尽管在言辞上充分论证了“哲人成王”的“美丽城邦”的建构,但他最终放弃了在大地上实现它的期望。这一姿态也表明,苏格拉底对于政治生活中的英雄阿基琉斯进行哲学化改造,最终不可能是成功的。苏格拉底对于阿基琉斯的哲学批判,彰显了哲学真理与政治人性的紧张,从而也从另一层面告诫我们:需要警惕哲学真理对于政治生活的伟大欲求。
中文关键词: 阿基琉斯;属己的爱;苏格拉底;存在真理;美丽城邦
Abstract:Achilles, the hero of Homer’s epic, was always the model of city–state youth in the moral education of ancient Greece. But in Plato’s Republic, Socrates particularly criticizes Homer’s Achilles. The original human nature and erotic passion of Achilles is very disadvantageous to educate the guardians in Socrates’ “beautiful city.” It has become the mission of Socrates’ teaching to criticize Achilles’ own “love” and advocate one’s love for “truth of being.” However, although Socrates fully demonstrated the construction of the “beautiful city” in words, he finally gave up the expectation of realizing it on the earth. This gesture also indicates that Socrates’ philosophical transformation for Achilles, the hero of political life, could not be successful in the end. Socrates’ philosophical criticism of Achilles reveals the tension between philosophical truth and political humanity, thus warning us from another level that we need to be alert to the great desire of philosophical truth for political life.
keywords: Achilles;one’s own love;Socrates;truth of being;beautiful city
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基金项目:本文系国家社会科学基金项目“修昔底德著作的翻译、注释与研究”(项目编号:15BWW058)阶段性成果
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
WEI Chaoyong Sun Yat-sen University hsswcy@mail.sysu.edu.cn 
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
WEI Chaoyong Sun Yat-sen University hsswcy@mail.sysu.edu.cn 
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